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Debt and Financing Options for Real Estate Companies

By Spodek Law Group | February 20, 2024

Debt and Financing Options for Real Estate Companies

Bank Loans

Banks offer a variety of loan products that can provide financing for real estate companies. Some options include:

  • Commercial mortgages – Loans secured by commercial real estate used to finance the purchase, refinance, construction, or rehabilitation of properties.
  • Construction loans – Short-term loans used to finance construction projects, which are then converted into permanent mortgages after completion.
  • Bridge loans – Short-term loans used for capital needs in anticipation of future financing. Helpful when needing to close quickly.
  • Lines of credit – Revolving credit facilities that provide flexible access to capital, useful for smoothening cash flow.

When applying for bank loans, real estate companies will need a solid business plan, financial statements, and personal guarantees from principals. Rates may also be higher for riskier project types like land development.

Hard Money Loans

Hard money loans are asset-based loans provided by private investors and specialty finance companies. Since they are based on the property itself rather than borrower credit, hard money loans can fund deals faster than traditional bank loans.

Typical terms of hard money loans include:

  • Interest rates from 7% to 15%
  • Loan-to-value ratios around 60% to 75%
  • Short-terms of 6 months to 3 years

The higher rates and fees make these loans best for short-term financing needs prior to getting permanent financing.

Crowdfunding / Peer-to-Peer Lending

Online crowdfunding and peer-to-peer lending platforms provide direct access to both accredited and non-accredited investors looking to fund real estate projects. Some popular sites include:

  • LendingHome – Hard money loans from individual and institutional investors
  • PeerStreet – Real estate debt investments like first mortgages
  • Groundfloor – Short-term loans for flippers and developers

By opening up deals to a wider capital pool, crowdfunding can help real estate firms raise funds faster and more flexibly than traditional financing.

Partnership Structures

Forming partnerships with equity investors is another way for real estate companies to fund growth and share risk. Common structures include:

  • Joint ventures – Partnering on a single development project
  • Strategic partnerships – Longer-term cooperation on multiple projects
  • REITs – Launching a real estate investment trust to raise public funds

Partnering allows leveraging other investors’ capital and expertise. But it also involves splitting up ownership and profits.

Mezzanine Debt

Mezzanine debt bridges the gap between a property’s equity and senior debt. It is a riskier layer of debt that can be used in acquisitions and developments to reduce the amount of required equity.

Typical mezzanine loan terms include:

  • Interest rates from 12% to 20%
  • Terms of 3 to 10 years
  • Loan-to-values ratios of 70% to 85%

Mezzanine debt works well for experienced developers looking to increase their overall leverage.

Seller Financing

Seller financing means the property seller provides financing themselves to help sell the property. This creative financing structure allows buyers to purchase with less upfront capital.

Common types of seller financing include:

  • Purchase-money mortgages – The seller carries back a mortgage for part of the purchase price
  • Lease-option contracts – The buyer leases the property with the option to buy later
  • Land contracts – The deed transfers after the buyer has paid the full price

Seller financing can facilitate deals, but also introduces risk if the buyer defaults.

Government Programs

There are a wide variety of federal, state, and local government programs that offer financing options for commercial real estate investors. These include low-interest loan programs, grants, and tax incentives.

For example, the U.S. Small Business Administration offers CDC/504 loans to support commercial real estate purchases for small businesses. State and local economic development agencies also provide incentives for development projects expected to create jobs.

Tapping into governmental funding sources can subsidize the cost of capital for eligible development projects.

Pros & Cons Comparison Table

Here’s a comparison table summarizing some of the key pros and cons of these real estate financing options:

Type of Financing Pros Cons
Bank Loans Lower rates, longer terms Strict requirements, slower process
Hard Money Loans Fast, flexible terms Very high rates
Crowdfunding Wider investor access Higher fees, new model
Partnerships Leverage other’s capital Split profits
Mezzanine Debt Increase leverage Higher cost than senior debt
Seller Financing Facilitates sales Risk of default
Government Programs Subsidized, low rates Restrictions, bureaucracy

Combining Multiple Financing Sources

The above financing options are not mutually exclusive. Many real estate deals combine multiple layers of debt and equity financing to optimize overall cost of capital and mitigate risk through diversification.

For example, a commercial development project could potentially use:

  • A senior bank loan covering 50% of costs
  • Mezzanine debt covering another 20%
  • Joint venture equity for 25%
  • And a small government incentive loan for the remainder

Layering financing like this allows real estate companies to fund larger and more complex projects than would be possible with a single capital source.

Key Takeaways

The key takeaways on debt and financing options for real estate companies include:

  • Seek portfolio lenders like banks and credit unions for maximum financing and lowest rates
  • Use alternative lenders and crowdfunding for quicker access to capital
  • Partner with equity investors to grow capacity and share risk
  • Combine multiple types of financing together on larger projects
  • Tap into government programs if projects align with public policy goals

Carefully balancing all these capital resources can empower real estate companies to build thriving portfolios.


For further reading on real estate financing, check out these additional resources:



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