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California Defamation (Libel and Slander) Laws

California Defamation Laws: What You Need to Know

Defamation laws in California, like, protect people against false statements that harm their reputation. The legal terms for defamation are libel (for written statements) and slander (for spoken statements). I’ll break down how these laws work and what defenses you can use if someone accuses you of defamation.

The Basics

To prove defamation in California, the plaintiff (the person suing) needs to show:

  • The defendant made a false statement of fact about the plaintiff. Opinions don’t count.
  • The statement was published or shared with at least one other person besides the plaintiff. So saying it to the plaintiff alone doesn’t count.
  • The statement harmed the plaintiff’s reputation or discouraged others from associating with them.
  • The defendant made the statement negligently or with actual malice. More on that later.

If the plaintiff proves all that, the defendant can still avoid liability with certain defenses. More on those defenses in a bit.First let’s break down each element:

False Statement of Fact

The statement has to be provably false. Defamation law doesn’t protect opinions, even really mean ones. As the Supreme Court said, there’s “no such thing as a false idea.”The statement also has to be about a specific person or company. You can’t defame a whole group or class of people.Examples of false factual statements that could be defamatory:

  • “John embezzled money from his company.”
  • “The restaurant has rats in its kitchen.”
  • “Jane cheated on the exam.”

Statements of opinion are NOT defamatory. For example:

  • “I think John is a lousy employee.”
  • “That restaurant served terrible food.”
  • “Jane seems like a dishonest person to me.”

The line between fact and opinion isn’t always crystal clear though. Context matters. Calling someone a “scammer” or “quack” could imply specific facts and be defamatory, even though they look like opinions.

Published to a Third Party

Telling a defamatory lie directly to the plaintiff usually isn’t enough for defamation. The statement has to be published or shared with at least one other person.Examples:

  • Posting a defamatory statement on social media, a website, flyers, etc.
  • Saying it out loud to a group of people
  • Sending an email or text about the plaintiff to someone else
  • Filing a false complaint against the plaintiff with an official agency

Simply telling the plaintiff “I think you’re a crook” face-to-face probably wouldn’t count as defamation. But saying “I think Bob’s a crook” to Bob’s friend would.

Caused Reputational Harm

The false statement has to harm the plaintiff’s reputation or deter others from associating with them. For example, by:

  • Hurting the plaintiff’s professional reputation
  • Causing people to shun or avoid the plaintiff socially
  • Disrupting the plaintiff’s business relationships
  • Keeping others from doing business with the plaintiff

Actual financial loss isn’t required. But the harm has to be more than just minor annoyance or embarrassment. There needs to be real reputational damage.

Made Negligently or with Malice

In a defamation lawsuit, the plaintiff has to prove the defendant acted negligently or with “actual malice.”For private plaintiffs, “negligence” just means the defendant didn’t use reasonable care to determine if the statement was true or false. They were careless or reckless with the truth.But for public officials and other public figures, negligence isn’t enough. They have to prove “actual malice.” That means the defendant made the statement either:

  • Knowing it was false, or
  • With reckless disregard for the truth.

So a mistake or carelessness isn’t enough. The defendant had to actually know the statement was false or not care at all if it was true or false.This higher standard comes from the First Amendment, to protect freedom of speech on public issues and people.

Defenses Against Defamation Claims

Even if a statement seems defamatory, the defendant has several possible defenses to avoid liability:


Truth is an absolute defense to defamation. As long as the factual statement is substantially true, it’s not defamatory even if it hurts the plaintiff’s reputation.Minor inaccuracies don’t matter as long as the “gist” or “sting” of the statement is true.


It’s not defamation if the plaintiff consented to the statement being published. For example, by signing a release or giving an interview. But consent has limits – like if the statement goes beyond what the plaintiff agreed to.


Statements of opinion rather than factual assertions usually aren’t defamatory, as mentioned earlier. But there are some exceptions where opinions may imply specific defamatory facts.


Statements made in certain protected contexts of privilege aren’t defamatory even if false. Two key examples:Absolute privilege – Statements made in official legislative, judicial, or administrative proceedings can’t be defamatory even if false. The idea is to promote open debate in official contexts.Qualified privilege – Statements between people with a shared interest or duty may be protected if made in good faith. This covers things like employer references, credit reports, etc. The plaintiff can still overcome this privilege by showing the defendant acted with malice.

Fair Report Privilege

Media outlets can report on official proceedings like trials or public meetings without liability for defamation, as long as the report is fair and accurate. This promotes public awareness of official acts.

Who Can Sue for Defamation?

The person allegedly defamed can sue for defamation in their own name. No one can sue on behalf of a deceased person.For living people, the defamatory statement has to be “of and concerning” them specifically. So you can’t just defame a group or class of people.Businesses and other organizations can also sue for defamation about their goods, services or professional reputation.

Public Figures vs Private Figures

Whether the plaintiff is a public or private figure matters a lot in defamation cases.Public figures like politicians or celebrities have to prove actual malice – knowledge of falsity or reckless disregard of the truth. A merely negligent false statement isn’t enough. This heightened standard comes from the First Amendment.Private figures only need to show negligence. The idea is they didn’t voluntarily put themselves into public debate like public figures did.Determining who counts as a limited purpose public figure can be tricky though. People can become temporary public figures by getting involved in specific public controversies.

Damages in Defamation Cases

If the plaintiff proves defamation, they can recover money damages for both economic and non-economic harm.Economic or special damages cover quantifiable financial losses from the reputational injury. For example, lost salary, customers, or business opportunities.Non-economic or general damages cover less tangible harm like mental anguish, humiliation, embarrassment, etc. The plaintiff’s social standing and the nature of the defamatory statement affect these damages.Punitive damages may also be awarded to punish intentional or malicious defamation. But some states like California cap punitive damages.Plaintiffs can seek injunctions to stop continued publication of defamatory statements too. But courts are hesitant to impose prior restraints on speech. Retractions may also be required.

The Bottom Line

Defamation law aims to balance protecting reputations vs. free speech rights. The elements and defenses try to strike that balance.But defamation cases often come down to gray areas like fact vs. opinion, negligence vs. malice, public vs private plaintiff. It’s very context-specific.If you’re worried about defamation liability, consult an attorney experienced in media law. They can review the specific statement and context to assess any risks and defenses. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure when it comes to defamation!


This video gives a quick overview of the basics of defamation law.This article covers defamation law in California in more detail.Here are some examples of defamation cases in California and how the courts ruled:

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